Mathematics Concept & Skill Development Lecture Series: Webvideo consolidation of site lessons and lesson ideas in preparation. Price to be determined. Bright Students: Top universities want you. While many have high fees: many will lower them, many will provide funds, many have more scholarships than students. Postage is cheap. Apply and ask how much help is available. Caution: some programs are rewarding. Others lead nowhere. After acceptance, it may be easy or not to switch. Are you a careful reader, writer and thinker?
Five logic chapters lead to greater precision and comprehension in reading and
writing at home, in school, at work and in mathematics. Early High School Arithmetic
Deciml Place Value  funny ways to read multidigit decimals forwards and
backwards in groups of 3 or 6. Early High School Algebra
What is
a Variable?  this entertaining oral & geometric view
may be before and besides more formal definitions  is the view mathematically
correct? Early High School GeometryMaps + Plans Use  Measurement use maps, plans and diagrams drawn to scale.  Coordinates  Use them not only for locating points but also for rotating and translating in the plane.  What is Similarity  another view of using maps, plans and diagrams drawn to scale in the plane and space. Many humanmade objects are similar by design.  7 Complex Numbers Appetizer. What is or where is the square root of 1. With rectangular and polar coordinates, see how to add, multiply and reflect points or arrows in the plane. The visual or geometric approach here known in various forms since the 1840s, demystifies the square root of 1 and the associated concept of "imaginary" numbers. Here complex number multiplication illustrates rotation and dilation operations in the plane.  Geometric Notions with Ruler & Compass Constructions : 1 Initial Concepts & Terms 2 Angle, Vertex & Side Correspondence in Triangles 3 Triangle Isometry/Congruence 4 Side Side Side Method 5 Side Angle Side Method 6 Angle Bisection 7 Angle Side Angle Method 8 Isoceles Triangles 9 Line Segment Bisection 10 From point to line, Drop Perpendicular 11 How Side Side Side Fails 12 How Side Angle Side Fails 13 How Angle Side Angle Fails 
www.whyslopes.com >>  Volume 1A Pattern Based Reason >> Chapter 5 Deception Next: [Chapter 6 Chains of Reason.] Previous: [Chapter 4 Implication Rules  Forwards and Backwards.] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7][8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] Chapter 5, Deception (and Hype)Suggestive or Misleading QuestionsRecall that one question for the oneway rule When Aunt Jane visits her nephew Tom's home, Tom goes out to play. asked what could be said for certain about Aunt Jane when Tom goes out to play? The answer is nothing. But the wording in this question hinted or suggested that a little bit more could be said for certain about Aunt Jane. The question was slightly misleading. A less misleading question would be what, if anything, can be said for certain. You have to be aware of misleading questions. The topic of suggestive and misleading questions is discussed next.& Are you trusting? Are you willing to politely accept everything I or someone else says or suggests without question? The phrase what can you say for sure in the above question makes you expect something could be said for sure, not nothing. You have to watch for misleading and suggestive questions in and outside of this book. When someone tries to convince you with a suggestive chain of reasoning, you need to recognize the weak and strong links in that chain. Then you can decide for yourself whether or not to accept the suggestions or conclusions obtained. Faulty logic may hide some deliberate deception or some reparable chains of reason. In particular, you may see where the chain fails and is broken, or where the chain can be strengthened or repaired. In our thoughts, we need to identify or keep track of what is certain, what is almost sure, what is guessed, what is probable, and what is only suggested. The next example is farfetched in most worldly locations, but it illustrates a situation that you need to recognize. Suppose I asked how long have you been beating your elephant? This question suggests you own a mistreated elephant. A gullible, too trusting, person overhearing this question could believe (assume) you own an elephant. A gullible person overhearing the question could believe this unless you say the question is absurd because you don't own an elephant. We all are slightly gullible. It is a matter of politeness not to challenge a speaker. On hearing a question, we like (or tend) to think each question posed is correct, honest and not misleading. But we need to continually watch for questions that are not realistic, especially if the speaker does allow us to challenge them. Their words may force upon us unchallenged assumptions or suggestions. Suggestive questions need to be recognized – if not stopped. They need to be challenged and corrected to prevent the reasoning from continuing in an absurd or deceptive direction. A series of suggestive questions is intimidating and forceful. When the suggestions in them remain unchallenged, you may find yourself at the end of a long chain of suggestive reasoning, agreeing to or not challenging some repugnant ideas. So watch for misleading questions. The questions and possibly the speaker are false. Step by step, or question by question, such false reasoning needs to be exposed. The exposure could start with the very first question, and then the next, and the next, and so on. When a speaker, in posing and answering suggestive questions, leads you to false or repugnant conclusions, such a speaker has lied and mislead you. Your intelligence has been deliberately or accidentally insulted. The speaker, a possible villain, has taken advantage of your politeness or silence. Faulty reason or lies may be hidden in suggestive questions. Hype, Hype, Hype, HoorayPeople try to persuade us in many ways. We need to recognize the fair and unfair ways, or the sensible and nonsensical ways. In persuading ourselves and others, we need to recognize and appreciate or reward careful logic. Efforts to persuade and lead us are met in advertising, public relations, political campaigns, religion, law, business, mathematics courses (yes), and even your family. Advertisements and sales pitches may give an excessively favorable impression of a product. That is, few people, parties or companies will point to the bad or weak parts in their service or product. Because of a favorable impression or promise, we may choose one service or product much to our later regret. Words can be used not only to teach and inform but also to direct or misdirect others. Here different messages can be given to different people. For example in talking about an adultonly subject, a child may be given or understand one message, while the elders understand another (or both). This may give a simple, halfinnocent, example of a creative, deceptive ambiguity. In time the child grows up. Delivery of two different messages at once becomes more difficult as the child learns. Double meanings are then seen by the child, and no longer useful. The child is less gullible. More blatantly, appearances and words can mislead us. Ambiguity and inconsistency are tools of some politicians and some sales agents for whom only the result (selling a product, service or conclusion) counts. For example, a leader or salesperson may suggest different and contrary ideas to different people. Watch for this inconsistency. Does it reflect a maturing attitude or a deceptive tongue? In honest debate between people, question and issues are addressed one by one as they appear and the course of debate is not changed to avoid answering awkward questions. Unfortunately, for the sake of persuasion, political speakers may respond to only part of a question and shift the topic of conversation, so that the original topic is neglected. It is a shallow and insulting kind of response that goes for the most part unchallenged in public debate. Numbers, and not just words, can be used to mislead people. Numerical descriptions of situations need to be understood. Averages for instance may be computed using different ways. It is also deceptive to let people think that one calculation is used instead of another. It is also deceptive, more precisely meaningless, to use statistics without saying how they were computed. In mathematics, a statistic is just a number computed from collected data. Further examples of and warnings about numerical or statistical methods of deception can be found in the following two books.
Ethics For PersuasionWhen you want others to agree with an action or idea, how should you speak? The only way to convince others is to give them reasons acceptable to them. But in doing this, our reasons for the action or idea could be different from the ones acceptable to them. When this is the case, we should say so. In this, some diplomacy may be required. The honesty advocated here is awkward when you speak to people who do not allow reasons different from theirs for a common goal. Selby A, Volume 1A, Pattern Based Reason, 1996. www.whyslopes.com >>  Volume 1A Pattern Based Reason >> Chapter 5 Deception Next: [Chapter 6 Chains of Reason.] Previous: [Chapter 4 Implication Rules  Forwards and Backwards.] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7][8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] 
Road Safety Messages for All: When walking on a road, when is it safer to be on the side allowing one to see oncoming traffic? Play with this [unsigned]
Complex Number Java Applet
to visually do complex number arithmetic with polar and Cartesian coordinates and with the headtotail
addition of arrows in the plane. Click and drag complex numbers A and B to change their locations.
Pattern Based ReasonOnline Volume 1A, Pattern Based Reason, describes origins, benefits and limits of rule and patternbased reason and decisions in society, science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Not all is certain. We may strive for objectivity, but not reach it. Online postscripts offer a storytelling view of learning: [ A ] [ B ] [ C ] [ D ] to suggest how we share theory and practice in many fields of knowledge. Site Reviews1996  Magellan, the McKinley Internet Directory:Mathphobics, this site may ease your fears of the subject, perhaps even help you enjoy it. The tone of the little lessons and "appetizers" on math and logic is unintimidating, sometimes funny and very clear. There are a number of different angles offered, and you do not need to follow any linear lesson plan. Just pick and peck. The site also offers some reflections on teaching, so that teachers can not only use the site as part of their lesson, but also learn from it. 2000  Waterboro Public Library, home schooling section:
CRITICAL THINKING AND LOGIC ... Articles and sections on topics such as
how (and why) to learn mathematics in school; patternbased reason;
finding a number; solving linear equations; painless theorem proving;
algebra and beyond; and complex numbers, trigonometry, and vectors. Also
section on helping your child learn ... . Lots more!
2001  Math Forum News Letter 14,
... new sections on Complex Numbers and the Distributive Law
for Complex Numbers offer a short way to reach and explain:
trigonometry, the Pythagorean theorem,trig formulas for dot and
crossproducts, the cosine law,a converse to the Pythagorean Theorem
2002  NSDL Scout Report for Mathematics, Engineering, Technology  Volume 1, Number 8
Math resources for both students and teachers are given on this site,
spanning the general topics of arithmetic, logic, algebra, calculus,
complex numbers, and Euclidean geometry. Lessons and howtos with clear
descriptions of many important concepts provide a good foundation for
high school and college level mathematics. There are sample problems that
can help students prepare for exams, or teachers can make their own
assignments based on the problems. Everything presented on the site is
not only educational, but interesting as well. There is certainly plenty
of material; however, it is somewhat poorly organized. This does not take
away from the quality of the information, though.
2005  The NSDL Scout Report for Mathematics Engineering and Technology  Volume 4, Number 4
... section Solving Linear Equations ... offers lesson ideas for
teaching linear equations in high school or college. The approach uses
stick diagrams to solve linear equations because they "provide a concrete
or visual context for many of the rules or patterns for solving
equations, a context that may develop equation solving skills and
confidence." The idea is to build up student confidence in problem
solving before presenting any formal algebraic statement of the rule and
patterns for solving equations. ...
Senior High School Geometry

Euclidean Geometry  See how chains of reason appears in and
besides geometric constructions. Calculus Starter Lessons
Why study slopes  this fall 1983 calculus appetizer shone in many
classes at the start of calculus. It could also be given after the intro of slopes
to introduce function maxima and minima at the ends of closed intervals. 